Saturday, March 15, 2014

Topic Outline Lecture Notes and Key to Takehome Exam

STS LECTURE NOTES 2nd Sem 2013 to 2014

Note: Topic Outline

I. History and Philosophy of science and technology:
II.Science and technology in daily life:
III. Science and technology, in the arts, law and social sciences:
IV. Science, science policy and national development

I. History and Philosophy of science and technology:

A. The Fertile Crescent
Teaching religiona and mathemathics

B. The Civilization of the Americas

Mayan Mathemathics and Astrology
Impact of meeting the Europeans
Buring of the Codex

C. Science and industrialization of China

The First Emperor, Unification of China, the Great Wall of China and the book burning and treatment of Scholars.

Death of the First Emperor and the mandate of Heaven

Technology and development of paper, the compass, iron foundry, the celestial engine and the bronze seismograph

Zheng Heng
Su Song

Impact of the Emperors and the development of Science and technology

D. Greece and Geeks

  Science and Philosophy
- To the Greeks both were interelated

- Both were means to find out about the nature of things

- Both moving by argument and proof from one hypothesis to another

Science was

The gods did not reveal everything to men at the beginning, but men as they seek in time something better - Xenophanes

All things are full of gods - Thales

Greek Philosophers and Scientists


Archimedes of Syracuse
- Archimeded Principle
- Archimedes screw
- Archimedes Claw
- Archimedes Death Ray
- Roman Siege of Syracuse and the death of Archimedes

Mentors and Students
Alexander the Great

Triremes, Themosticles and the Battle of Salamis

- Trireme and Trickery
- Defeat of Xerxes and impact on Greek Society, technology and Science

Alexander the Great and Hellenism
- Death of Alexander and the division of the Empire
- General Ptolemy and General Ptolemy
- Alexandria and the the Graat Lighthouse & the Great Alexandrian. Library
- Hero of Alexandria and his steam engine

E. The Golden Age of Islam: Science, Technology under the Abbasid Caliphate and Beyond

Scholar and Scientist of the Islamic Golden Age

al-Jazari.  - Engineer & Mathematician - Elephant Clock
Moroccan Princess Fatima al-Fihri - Modern University
Egyptian physicist Alhazen - Study of optics and he invented the camera obscura
Andalusian physician al-Zahrawi -  use of catgut sutures and developed sophisticated surgical instruments, including scalpels, syringes, forceps and surgical needles

The Astrolabe - Star taker and its uses:

locating and predicting the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars,
determining local time given local latitude and vice-versa,
surveying, triangulation,
and to cast horoscopes and for meditation and prayer ( time of prayer and direction where to pray)

Policy: Conquest and treatment of subjects

"This is what Khalid ibn al-Walid would grant to the inhabitants of Damascus if he enters therein: he promises to give them security for their lives, property and churches. Their city wall shall not be demolished, neither shall any Muslim be quartered in their houses. Thereunto we give them the pact of Allah and the protection of His Prophet, the caliphs and the believers. So long as they pay the poll tax, nothing but good shall befall them."

Arabic Language

Haroun Al-Raschid and Al-Mamun
Bayt al-Hikma - House of  Wisdom

Not to be confused with the
Dar al-Hikmah or House of Knowledge

Translation Center,
Research Facility

Ishaq ibn Hunayn and Thabit ibn Qurrah - prepared a critical edition of Euclid's Elements

Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwaraznli  is believed to have been one of the first to explore the use of Arabic numerals and wrote the first book on Algebra - Kitab al-Jabr wa-l-Muqabalah

Sons of Musa Ibn Shakir also known as Banu Musa or the Sons of Musa : Muhammad, Ahmad, and al-Hasan

Banu Musa

The Measurement of the Sphere, Trisection of the Angle, and Determination of Two Mean Proportionals to Form a Single Division between Two Given Quantities.
celestial mechanics and the atom,
canal construction
recruited one of the greatest of the ninth-century scholars, Thabit ibn Qurrah.

Thabit ibn Qurrah

Syriac, Greek, and Arabic

Translated Greek Scientific writing anf produced seventy original works:

and the construction of scientific instruments.

Hunayn ibn Isha

Aka Joanitius - who eventually translated the entire canon of Greek medical works into Arabic, including the Hippocratic oath.
Wrote around twenty-nine original medical treatises  and essays on ophthalmology - the anatomy and physiology of the eye and the treatment of various diseases which afflict vision, and included anatomical drawings.

The Bayt Al- Hikma was destroyed by the Mongalian Siege of Baghdad. Some books were spirited out and saved

Science, Technology & Society in Ancient Time

Each society has its culture of Science and Technology
There are common scientific and technological threads between the Civilization
Science and Technology Rise and Fall with its Civilization
What we know of Science and Technology depends on key moments in history
What is lost is eventually rediscovered
We are the sum total of the collective human experience

by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

One day, Haroun Al Raschid read
A book wherein the poet said: --

Where are the kings, and where the rest
Of those who once the world possessed?

They're gone with all their pomp and show,
They're gone the way that thou shalt go.

O thou who choosest for thy share
The world, and what the world calls fair,

Take all that it can give or lend,
But know that death is at the end!

Haroun Al Raschid bowed his head:
Tears fell upon the page he read."

F. The Middle Ages and Science

Rise of Christiannitu and Science of the Middle Ages

- Rebuilding of body of knowledge and Chrisrian Elders reaction to science

-- Debate about the works of Aristotle
-- Death of Hypatia of Alexandria and the burning of a section of the library of Alexandria
-- the rise of the universities
-- Albert Magnus, Thomas Aquinas amd Scholasticism
-- the Venerable Bede and his tide research in England
-- Aquinas Scholasticism and its critics
-- Dissent and its crirics.

II.Science and technology in daily life:

A. books: history of books and the spread of science and learning.
B. Digital life: Impact and Challenges of a Wired Society
C. The Rhetoric of Cancer
F. Science, Technology and Society: Great Britain: Empire, Queen Victoria and the challenges of technology and Progress; Near inception of our contemporary world - challenges and problems caused by Science and Technology

III. Science and technology, in the arts, law and social sciences:

A. View of Science and Scientists

- The Fly 1950
- James Whale and the Bride of Frankenstein7
- Shelly 's Frankenstein
Isaac Asimov scientist and writer
- All the time in the World - twilight zone

B. Science and Science Fiction

- the Miracle Exception Rule in The Watchmen
- Science of Time Travelling: the theories and physicists

C. Science in Art

- Durer s Rhino
Asimov s Nightfall
-- Nightfall
-- Comparison with other writer s work like Microcosm God and Flowers for Algernon
--  Futurama
--  Frank Herbert s Dune - Politics, ecology, and mankind s future.
- Melies film adaptation of Verne's Trip to the Moon
- Frank Herbert's Dune
- Gojira and Anak ng Bulkan
- Blade Runner

D. Sciencea and Music
- Herschel: Scientist and Composer
- Gustav Holt's The Planets
- Camille Saint-Saens - the Aquarium ans the Fossils
- Space Exploration from Frank Sinatra, Elton John to Glam Rock
- Music Video : the Cold War and Sting to Thomas Dolby
- Evolution and Fat Boy Slim : Right here Right. Now
- The Big Bang Theory

IV. Science, science policy and national development

- Nazification of Germany and flight of German Scientists: Albert Eistein

- Effect of the 20 years of Marcos Rule on the Philippines: Imelda, the Marcos projects, controversies and impact on the national birth rate.

- the arms race between the Allies and the Axis Powers during World War II.

- Robert Oppenheimer and the Manhattan Project : the Nuclear Bomb Legacy

- The State and Science


Correct Answer in Parenthesis:
Key to Takehome Exam

Final Examination STS 2nd Semester 2013-2014

Part I. Multiple Choice and True or false.

1. British Scientist and Musical Composer

A. William Frederick Herschel
B. William Hanover Herschel
C. Frederick William Herschel
D. George Frederick Herschel

2. Proponents of Scholasticism (a)

A. Thomas Aquinas
B. Francis Bacon
C. Willam of Occam
D. Willam of Ockham

3. The Hayt Al Hikma was known as the (D)

A. House of Information
B. House of Studies
C. House of Knowledge
D. House of Wisdom

4. The Bride of Frankenstein was directed by (C)

A. Orson Welles
B. Alfred Hitchcock
C. James Whales
D. Otto Preminger

5. Chinese Zhang Heng was responsible for the (D)

A. Bronze Water Clock
B. Iron Furnace
C. Gun Powder
D. Bronze Dragon Seismic Movement Indicator

6. Hero of Alexandria invented (c)

A. Anthiketra
B. Underground aqueduct
C. A steam engine
D. The Great Lighthouse of Alexandria

7. Thomas Aquinas and Albertus Magnus paved the way for the acceptance of (c)

A. The works of Plato
B. The works of Galen
C. The works of Aristotle
D. The works of Socrates

8. The novel Frankenstein was written by: (b)

A. Percy Shelly
B. Mary Shelly
C. Dr. Polidori
D. Lord Byron

9. Isaac Asimov did not write the following story (b)

A. Nightfall
B. Microcosm God
C. This Thing Called Love
D. Azazel the Demon

10. The Elephant Clock was developed by these Arab Scientit (c)

A. Al Mamun
B. Avicenna
C. Al Jazari
D. Princess Fatima Al Hazen

11. Chinese Scholar and Scientist who developed the Celestial Engine (b)

A. Shi Huang Di
B. Su Song
C. Zhang Hang
D. Chin Shi Huang

12. What is Internet Penetration Rate?

A. Population of a country whose names are on the Internet
B. Population of a country who uses Smart phones and. Tablets
C. Population of a. conutry who uses social media
D. Population of a country using the Internet

13. What is the Digital Divide (c)

A. Difference of opinion on the web
B. Balkanization of cyberspace
C. Those with access and those without access to the Internet
D. Mozilla and Google chrome users

14. Internet Penetration Rate of the Philippines as of 2012 (b)

A. 79 %
B. 35 %
C. 90 %
D. 10 %

15. The Greek City States defeated the Persians Naval forces at this battle and enabled them eventually to promote Hellenism (b)

A. Battle of Marathon
B. Battle of Salamis
C. Battle of Thermophylae
D. Battle of Syracuse

16. The technology  used by the Greeks to defeat the Persians at sea (d)

A. The Claw
B. The Greek Fire
C. The Phalanx
D. The Trireme

17. Archimedes died in what City?(c)

A. Athens
B. Attica
C. Syracuse
D. Philippi

18. Who among these writers is a Scientist? (A)

A. Isaac Asimov
B. Frank Herbert
C. Mary Shelley
D. Umberto Eco

19. What branch of science is predominantly mentioned in Frank Herbert's Dune? (E)

A. Mathemathics
B. Physics
D. Chemistry
E. Ecology

20. In Shelley's novel what or who is Frankenstein?(c)

A. The creature
B. The Theory of Reanimation
C. The Scientist
D. A scientific unit

21. What was the most effective ways to guard book theft during the Middle Ages? (C)

A. Book Curses
B. Poison
C. Chains to the walls
D. Anathemas

22. The Astrolabe or the Star taker was used for -(d)

A. locating and predicting the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars,
B. determining local time given local latitude and vice-versa, surveying,triangulation
C. to cast horoscopes and prayers
D. All of the above
E. Only A and B

23. One of secrets of the Persian Empire was we now know as (d)

A. Medicine
B. Paleontology
C. Seismology
D. Hydrogeology

24. The Bayt Al-Hikma was built and completed by (d)

A. The Mahdi
B. Al Mua Dib
C. Haroun Al Raschid
D. Haroun Al Raschid and Al Mamun

25. Gustav Holt's The Pylanet was originally written for (c)

A. String Quartet
B. Orchestra
C. Two Pianos
D. Opera

26. Holt's hobby led to creation of The Planets Suits (c)

A. Astronomy
B. Physics
C. Astrology
D. Chemistry

27. Sumerians were taught (d)

A. Arts and Religion
B. Arts, Religion and Mathemathics
C. Arts and Mathematica
D. Religion and Mathematics

28. In the Americas much of their codex of knowledge were destroyed by (c)

A. The war between city-states
B. The Great Fire that engulfed the City-States
C. The Spanish Missionaries and the Inquisition
D. The Great Feather Serpent Earthquake

29. Who was the pupil of Aristotle who promoted Hellenism (c)
A. Philip
B. Pericles
C. Alexander
D. Themistocles

30. What enabled England to become a super power (f)

A. Cast iron canon
B. Ships
C. Steam Engine
D. Train
E. Telegraph
F. All of the above

31. The Ptolemys did not build (c) or (d)

A. The Great Light House of Akexandria
B. The Great Library of Alexandria
C. The Sphinx
D. The Pyramids of Kufu

32. What were the negative effects of technological advances during the reign of Queen Victoria? (F)

A. Pollution
B. Swelling and mass migration of urban population
C. Poverty and exploitation of women and children
E. Disease outbreaks
F. All of the above

38. Industrialization and Tschnological Progess in England led to (e)

A. Gothic Revival
B. The Women Suffregete Movement
C. Novels highligthing the plight of the comman man and women
D. None of the above
E. All of the above

39. Initially which bodies of Greek work were considered controversial by the early Christian Fathers? (C)

A. Ptolemy
B. Socrates
C. Aristotle
D. Plato

40. The United States pooled together scientists during World War II for what is to be known as the Manhattan Project who was its lead scientista and project leader? (D)

A. Albert Einstein
B. Enrico Fermi
C. Alan Turing
D. Robert Oppenheimer

Mayan observatory in the Yucatan (a)

A. El Caracol
B. El Castillo
C. La Campagna
D. El Real

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